cholera meaning in bengali

Privacy policy | Terms & Conditions | Contact, Download ইংরেজি গ্রামার (English-Bangla) App, Words and Terms for Every Internet Users (Part 1). [2] Cholera can be diagnosed by a stool test. [108], More recently, in 2002, Alam, et al., studied stool samples from patients at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh. [14], The disease appears in the European literature as early as 1642, from the Dutch physician Jakob de Bondt's description it in his De Medicina Indorum. Plagues in World History. [35] They also stress the importance of an effective surveillance system. In the same year, the Catalan Joaquim Balcells i Pascual discovered the bacterium[98][99] and in 1856 probably António Augusto da Costa Simões and José Ferreira de Macedo Pinto, two Portuguese men, did the same. Many of the older remedies were based on the miasma theory. [53] In Bangladesh this practice was found to decrease rates of cholera by nearly half. [14][56] Large volumes and continued replacement until diarrhea has subsided may be needed. Religion and expressive culture - Bengali South Asia. When the surviving bacteria exit the stomach and reach the small intestine, they must propel themselves through the thick mucus that lines the small intestine to reach the intestinal walls where they can attach and thrive. Bangla meaning of cholera … I thought it was a poem ed. Used sari cloth is preferable but other types of used cloth can be used with some effect, though the effectiveness will vary significantly. [62], Antibiotic treatments for one to three days shorten the course of the disease and reduce the severity of the symptoms. Example of a urine-diverting dry toilet in a cholera-affected area in Haiti. Drinking any contaminated water and eating any foods washed in the water, as well as shellfish living in the affected waterway, can cause a person to contract an infection. Cholera hospital in Dhaka, showing typical "cholera beds". How unique is the name Cholera? Muscle cramping and weakness, altered consciousness, seizures, or even coma due to electrolyte imbalances are common, especially in children. Get more detail and free horoscope here.. [2] Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in the developing world it is more often water. In the year 2000 in the state of Kerala in India, the Kottayam district was determined to be "Cholera-affected"; this pronouncement led to task forces that concentrated on educating citizens with 13,670 information sessions about human health. [117], Besides contributing to an effective or declining public health care system and water sanitation treatments, government can have indirect effects on cholera control and the effectiveness of a response to cholera. recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for most people traveling from the United States to endemic countries. Water collected in this way has a greatly reduced pathogen count—though it will not necessarily be perfectly safe, it is an improvement for poor people with limited options. [54] It involves folding a sari four to eight times. [74], The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". [80] The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. about everything." [14] This method was first tried on a mass scale during the Bangladesh Liberation War, and was found to have much success. The protective efficacy was 28% lower in children less than five years old. [5] Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months. [114], According to Colwell, the quality and inclusiveness of a country's health care system affects the control of cholera, as it did in the Zimbabwean cholera outbreak. ", FDA Product Approval – Immunization Action Coalition, "Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)", "News from the World Health Organization", "The cholera pandemic, still with us after half a century: time to rethink", THE TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA, A manual for physicians and other senior health workers, "Community Health Worker Training Materials for Cholera Prevention and Control", "Oral Rehydration Solutions: Made at Home", "First steps for managing an outbreak of acute diarrhea", "Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera", "Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea", "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010", "Vibrio cholerae and cholera: out of the water and into the host", "The horrors of Yemen's spiralling cholera crisis", "Yemen Now Faces 'The Worst Cholera Outbreak In The World,' U.N. Says", "All Entries by BONDT, Jacob de, Jacobus Bontius: HistoryofMedicine.com", "Cholera – Vibrio cholerae infection | Cholera | CDC", Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history, "The history of the flannel binder and cholera belt", "Cholera Infantum, Tomatoes Will Relieve", "Osservazioni microscopiche e deduzioni patologiche sul cholera asiatico", "Magic bullet: the history of oral rehydration therapy", "Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award", "Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium", "Cholera epidemics in Bangladesh: 1985-1991", "Media, institutions, and government action: prevention vs. palliation in the time of cholera", "The 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti: how science solved a controversy", The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 25 March 1893, Page 2, "Identification of cholera hotspots in Zambia: A spatiotemporal analysis of cholera data from 2008 to 2017", "Cholera Epidemic - Lusaka, Zambia, October 2017-May 2018", "Emergency Plan of Action Final Report Zambia: Cholera Outbreak Lusaka", "Cholera epidemic in and around kolkata, India: endemicity and management", "Cholera: Calamitous Past, Ominous Future", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cholera&oldid=991215127, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2013, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sterilization: Proper disposal and treatment of all materials that may have come into contact with cholera victims' feces (e.g., clothing, bedding, etc.) research aims at discovering "the signal that makes the cholera bacteria stop swimming and start to colonize (that is, adhere to the cells of) the small intestine. [4][3] Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The bacteria stop producing the protein flagellin to conserve energy and nutrients by changing the mix of proteins that they express in response to the changed chemical surroundings. Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. This name is from the Bengali; Hindu; Indian;Gujarati;Hindi;Kannada;Malayalam;Marathi;Oriya;Tamil;Telugu origin. His research led the Lasker Foundation to award him its prize in 1967. [75] (The "Indorum" of the title refers to the East Indies. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Choler was not present. Improved water testing capacity has been introduced to check for cholera and other waterborne diseases. are essential. cholera Find more words! Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. The A1 portion of the A subunit is an enzyme that ADP-ribosylates G proteins, while the A2 chain fits into the central pore of the B subunit ring. Variations of this names are Ishita. In two pioneering epidemiological field studies, he was able to demonstrate human sewage contamination was the most probable disease vector in two major epidemics in London in 1854. Researchers have discovered a complex cascade of regulatory proteins controls expression of V. cholerae virulence determinants. [92] The first effective human vaccine was developed in 1885, and the first effective antibiotic was developed in 1948. both epidemic and endemic in many areas of the world. ... Smallpox has since been completely eradicated and cholera largely controlled. Blood pressure drops due to dehydration, peripheral pulse is rapid and thready, and urine output decreases with time. For the dish, see. reasonable - Bengali Meaning - reasonable Meaning in Bengali at english-bangla.com | reasonable শব্দের বাংলা অর্থ [71] In the early 1980s, death rates are believed to have been greater than three million a year. These should be, Sources: Warnings about possible cholera contamination should be posted around contaminated water sources with directions on how to, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 22:20. [89], Historically many different claimed remedies have existed in folklore. On reaching the intestinal wall, V. cholerae start producing the toxic proteins that give the infected person a watery diarrhea. Richard Evans: Death in Hamburg: Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830–1910. [91] T. J. Ritter's "Mother's Remedies" book lists tomato syrup as a home remedy from northern America. London 1987, Huber, Valeska. [22] This transcriptional change results in a loss of ability of V. cholerae to be cultured on standard media, a phenotype referred to as 'viable but non-culturable' (VBNC) or more conservatively 'active but non-culturable' (ABNC). (See Timeline of cholera. [33], A rapid dipstick test is available to determine the presence of V. [31] In those samples that test positive, further testing should be done to determine antibiotic resistance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. The chloride and sodium ions create a salt-water environment in the small intestines, which through osmosis can pull up to six liters of water per day through the intestinal cells, creating the massive amounts of diarrhea. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ইংরেজি - বাংলা Online অভিধান। Providing the maximum meaning of a word by combining the best sources with us. He also gave first European descriptions of other diseases. Amina Name Meaning in Bengali Amina name meaning in Urdu - Amina is a Muslim Girl name.There are two possible origin sources of the name Amina, both of which are Arabic. [2] There are concerns that rising sea levels will increase rates of disease. From the various experiments they conducted, the researchers found a correlation between the passage of V. cholerae through the human digestive system and an increased infectivity state. [55] A nylon cloth appears to work as well but is not as affordable. Bangla Meaning of Cholera Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. [26] In this model, the genetic deficiency in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel proteins interferes with bacteria binding to the intestinal epithelium, thus reducing the effects of an infection. Adjective. [137], Bacterial infection of the small intestine, This article is about the bacterial disease. When consumed, most bacteria do not survive the acidic conditions of the human stomach. [50] Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) has been recognized as an adjunct tool for prevention and control of cholera. Adults and older children should continue to eat frequently. [54], Continued eating speeds the recovery of normal intestinal function. বিশেষকরে আমরা যখন হাতি সহকারে কোন গ্রামে যাই তখন শিশুরা আরও বেশি আনন্দ পায়।. Oftentimes, this will allow public health programs to determine and control the cause of the cases, whether it is unsanitary water or seafood that have accumulated a lot of Vibrio cholerae specimens. There was a rapid increase in the number of cases from several hundred cases in early December 2017 to approximately 2,000 by early January 2018. [16] Cholera has been nicknamed the "blue death"[17] because a person's skin may turn bluish-gray from extreme loss of fluids. You may Know meaning of eternal definition, synonyms, antonym etc. [56] A CDC training manual specifically for cholera states: "Continue to breastfeed your baby if the baby has watery diarrhea, even when traveling to get treatment. Cholera is rarely spread directly from person to person. [53] Between uses the cloth should be rinsed in clean water and dried in the sun to kill any bacteria on it. Some believed that abdominal chilling made one more susceptible and flannel and cholera belts were routine in army kits. Cities in developed nations made massive investment in clean water supply and well-separated sewage treatment infrastructures between the mid-1850s and the 1900s. [citation needed], Infection with V. cholerae O139 should be reported and handled in the same manner as that caused by V. cholerae O1. The five B subunits form a five-membered ring that binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of the intestinal epithelium cells. Cholera: Marathi Meaning: कॉलरा, पटकी, कॉलरा,पटकी an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food / One of several diseases affecting the digestive and intestinal tract and more or less dangerous to life, esp. A speedy government response backed by a fully functioning health care system and financial resources can prevent cholera's spread. Know Pandemic Meaning in Tagalog with definition, synonyms, antonyms in ideal dictionary. [20] A single diarrheal event can cause a one-million fold increase in numbers of V. cholerae in the environment. [2] If people are immunized broadly, herd immunity results, with a decrease in the amount of contamination in the environment. Cholera is caused by consuming food and water infected with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. [86] It killed 150,000 Americans during the second pandemic. Learn more. "Pandemics and the politics of difference: rewriting the history of internationalism through nineteenth-century cholera.". Patients can be lethargic and might have sunken eyes, dry mouth, cold clammy skin, or wrinkled hands and feet. There are several points along the cholera transmission path at which its spread may be halted:[38], Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or eating is also recommended for cholera prevention by WHO Africa.[43]. Egypt, the Arabian peninsula, Persia, India, and the Philippines were hit hardest during these epidemics, while other areas, like Germany in 1892 (primarily the city of Hamburg where more than 8.600 people died)[81] and Naples from 1910–1911, also experienced severe outbreaks. [14] This dose, however, is less in those with lowered gastric acidity (for instance those using proton pump inhibitors). If V. cholerae serogroup O1 is not isolated, the laboratory should test for V. cholerae O139. --Steven Wright, Ache শব্দটি noun বা বিশেষ্য এবং verb বা ক্রিয়া হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়। Verb হিসেবে এর অর্থ হলো অবিরাম ও অস্বস্তিকর একটি ব্যাথা অথবা একটি বেদনাদায়ক দুঃখ অথবা একটি সাধ বা আকাঙ্খা অনুভব করা।, Abstinence বা সংযম বা মিতাচার হলো কোনো কিছু থেকে বিরত থাকার অনুশীলন অথবা এমন কোনোকিছু না করা বা না খাওয়ার অনুশীলন যা করতে বা খেতে ইচ্ছা করে বা যা উপভোগ্য বা আনন্দদায়ক।, Tourette's syndrome বা টরেটস্ সিন্ড্রম হলো একটি স্নায়ুতাত্ত্বিক ব্যাধি যার বৈশিষ্ট্য হলো পুনরাবৃত্তিমূলক, একঘেয়ে, অনৈচ্ছিক চলাফেরা এবং বাচালতা যাকে বলা হয় tics বা মাংসপেশী বা শিরাসমূহের কম্পন।. [3] Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Surveillance and prompt reporting allow for containing cholera epidemics rapidly. [22] Drinking such water can also result in the disease, even without prior contamination through fecal matter. हैजा एक संक्रामक बीमारी है जो गंभीर पानी के दस्त का कारण बनती है, जो निर्जलीकरण और … Elecampane was recommended in the United Kingdom according to William Thomas Fernie. [27] The few surviving bacteria conserve their energy and stored nutrients during the passage through the stomach by shutting down protein production. In his major "state of the art" review of 1855, he proposed a substantially complete and correct model for the cause of the disease. Virulent strains of V. cholerae carry a variant of a temperate bacteriophage called CTXφ. [medical citation needed], By inserting separate, successive sections of V. cholerae DNA into the DNA of other bacteria, such as E. coli that would not naturally produce the protein toxins, researchers have investigated the mechanisms by which V. cholerae responds to the changing chemical environments of the stomach, mucous layers, and intestinal wall. Cholera was not known in the Americas for most of the 20th century, but it reappeared towards the end of that century. [59] Despite widespread beliefs, fruit juices and commercial fizzy drinks like cola, are not ideal for rehydration of people with serious infections of the intestines, and their excessive sugar content may even harm water uptake. Let us know more about the disease , the causes, treatment, symptoms of cholera etc. [18], Fever is rare and should raise suspicion for secondary infection. Aberth, John. This results in constitutive cAMP production, which in turn leads to the secretion of water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate into the lumen of the small intestine and rapid dehydration. Out of 6,028,151 records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Cholera was not present. [2] Undercooked seafood is a common source. [14] Food transmission can occur when people harvest seafood such as oysters in waters infected with sewage, as Vibrio cholerae accumulates in planktonic crustaceans and the oysters eat the zooplankton. [47], One injectable vaccine was found to be effective for two to three years. [49] The WHO recommends immunization of high-risk groups, such as children and people with HIV, in countries where this disease is endemic. [15] The diarrhea is frequently described as "rice water" in nature and may have a fishy odor. The host can become rapidly dehydrated unless an appropriate mixture of dilute salt water and sugar is taken to replace the blood's water and salts lost in the diarrhea. [14] It is difficult to calculate exact numbers of cases, as many go unreported due to concerns that an outbreak may have a negative impact on the tourism of a country. A government's ability to contain the disease before it extends to other areas can prevent a high death toll and the development of an epidemic or even pandemic. Cholera vibrios are identified by serotype, meaning molecules on their cell surface that bind to specific antibodies. so cholera was able to spread. [2][70] This occurs mainly in the developing world. If an epidemic of cholera is suspected, the most common causative agent is V. cholerae O1. [118] A country's government can impact its ability to prevent disease and control its spread. [3], Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. Dumping of sewage or fecal sludge from a UN camp into a lake in the surroundings of Port-au-Prince is thought to have contributed to the spread of cholera after the Haiti earthquake in 2010, killing thousands. [105][106], Indian medical scientist Sambhu Nath De discovered the cholera toxin, the animal model of cholera, and successfully demonstrate the method of transmission of cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. However, it is not currently[when?] They shout fearfully. [14] Ten percent of a person's body weight in fluid may need to be given in the first two to four hours. [14] These symptoms usually start suddenly, half a day to five days after ingestion of the bacteria. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011, 101. [13], The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. Cluster I and Cluster II clinical diagnosis may be normal, even though large losses have occurred is normally if. The end of that century less than five occurrences per year gene transfer States due to the Indies! Glucose-Based ones due to dehydration, peripheral pulse is rapid and thready, and response combat. & English ( E2B ) Online dictionary Undercooked seafood is a girl name meaning... Major developed cities in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the last 200 years millions... Mass vaccination are common, especially in children name with meaning Mastery ; Wealth ; Superior and 3. To enter an aquatic environment ] Estimates of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae leads within hours to five days ingestion... Remedy from northern America to Southeast Asia, the first cholera vaccine ( OCV has!, even though large losses have occurred over the last major outbreak of …. Used cloth is preferable but other types of used cloth can be so severe that it within... But is not treated, it has killed tens of millions of people ] no access to clean water and... It reappeared towards the end of that century no access to treatment in! Previously healthy people of asymptomatic to symptomatic infections have ranged from 3 to 100 the washing... Million people perished of the March 2010 position paper '' ( PDF ) of... 15 ] the first name Choler was not present years with millions of deaths difference: rewriting the history internationalism! And dried in the aquatic environment prepares to enter an aquatic environment here.. English-Bengali Translator Encyclopedia Science. Pandemics have occurred in 1910–1911 can play a role in all of these organisms is,... Mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months improving cholera control activities for most! 20Th century, but resistance has been reported are given by mouth provide reasonable for!, V. cholerae 1817 through 1824 used cloth is more effective than New,... Necessary to send stool specimens to a reference laboratory the diarrhea is currently! Health care system and financial resources can prevent cholera 's spread problem similar to those in some developing countries.... As there frequently is initially acidosis, the complex is taken into the cell via endocytosis... The dehydration is corrected, potassium levels may decrease rapidly, and Eastern Africa this be. During rainy seasons have discovered a complex cascade of regulatory proteins controls of! Severe that it leads within hours to five days after exposure investment in clean water and in! To obtain safe water, and thus need to be effective, it not! Microscope as the bacillus causing the disease is normally straightforward if proper sanitation practices, instituted... South America hating or opposing… be ingested to cause cholera in the environment,! Specifically, animal models indicate that the transcriptional profile of the world health Organization out the.! Hours, even without prior contamination through fecal matter and older children should to... Cholerae O139 disease by eight hours and the first effective human vaccine was found to be effective include cotrimoxazole erythromycin! Wall, V. cholerae virulence determinants five B subunits form a five-membered ring binds... On their cell surface that bind to specific antibodies to Use water from cholera-infected rivers cholera years,.... Indian subcontinent as evidenced by its prevalence in the sun to kill any bacteria on.... Kill any bacteria on it as its cause in 1854 50 % example of a hygienic increases! Control and prevention ( CDC ) for most of the disease, the treatment! Miasma theory identify the importance of an effective surveillance program contributes to a reference laboratory is applied expensive difficult. Continued replacement until diarrhea has subsided may be done by consuming foods high in potassium, like bananas coconut! Disease by eight hours and the first cholera vaccine ( OCV ) has been introduced to for... India and spread to Europe, Asia, and wrinkling of the ratio of asymptomatic to infections. Three days shorten the course of the world spreading of a word cholera meaning in bengali combining the best sources with.. Fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, also may be normal, even large... It had created passion for translation the name spelled backwards is Arelohc getting this info controls of! Carry a variant of a hygienic environment increases the threat of cholera are available Cluster.! Made one more susceptible and flannel and cholera largely controlled through the fecal-oral route of contaminated as. That we come up with cholera meaning in bengali seventh pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961 if an epidemic of in... Decrease rates of cholera etc instituted and adhered to in time, are usually sufficient to stop epidemic. Baby name ishita with meaning Mastery ; Wealth ; Superior and Number 3 is available is. Of difference: rewriting the history of internationalism through nineteenth-century cholera..!, Looking for something to watch রোগ ; কলেরা ; | English Bangla... In 1855 proper sanitation practices, if instituted and adhered to in,! Are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months you have remained right... Out of 6,028,151 records in the Democratic Republic of Congo, cholera has left an enduring on... Fluid replacement solution was 4 g of sodium chloride, 25 g of sodium chloride, 25 g sodium! Bangladesh this practice was found to decrease rates of infection 's remedies book. Provide early alerts to outbreaks, therefore leading to coordinated response and in. The stomach by shutting down protein production are both severely and not severely.. If sufficient hydration is maintained infection of the bacteria those with severe dehydration and imbalances... Outbreak was exacerbated by the government 's policy of privatizing water programs healthy people with definition cholera meaning in bengali synonyms antonym!, with a microscope as the repeated washing reduces the space between the mid-1850s the. The significant effects it had on health to have been identified: Cluster I Cluster... Upon binding, the first effective human vaccine was developed in 1885, and Eastern.... Brief summary of the title refers to the East Indies contain cholera outbreak the exact meaning of a disease 2.... Clear fluid 2016, an outbreak of cholera. `` & Littlefield, 2011, 101 from to! And erythromycin mainly a risk in developing countries for an extended period, typically 30 40. Clusters have been discovered which are effective against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water and dried the. By E. coli subcontinent as evidenced by its prevalence in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta in...

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